significant increase in the rate of Hepatitis B infection among people with diagnosed with HIV in the United States , compared to the United States reported rate for the general population?

Research Question : Is there a significant increase in the rate of Hepatitis  B infection among people with diagnosed with HIV in the United States , compared to the United States  reported rate for the general population?
keep it general and your population should only be those diagnosed with HIV).

you need to think about what type of study you plan to conduct, along with what is the real outcome you are trying to examine. You also need to have an idea of what study design  like case control study, Cross sectional studies, Cohort studies and  type of statistics you want to conduct.. you should statistically examine it data collection that you are  using and  be able to examine the outcome variable.

1.    Null Hypotheses :The general hypothesis for this research is given the reduced immunity among people with HIV,  there is a significant increase in the rate of Hepatitis B among this group compared to the rate for the general population.
2.    Alternative hypothesis : There are various risk factors that are associated with the increase in the rate of hypothesis B among people diagnosed with HIV compared to the general population and this does not have to do with the HIV infection.

Assignment Module 4 : must be 2  pages and four more reference within text citation
Research Methodology
For this assignment, you will be proposing methodology for conducting further research on the relationship between your selected disease and risk factor.  In approximately 2 pages, describe the methodology for your research question.  Your proposed methodology should be included the following components (use subheadings for each section) otherwise should be rejected
1.    Approved research question from Module 1 see above
2.    Study Design: Describe your proposed study design.  Include a rationale for this study design.
3.    Study Population: Describe your study population.  What criteria will you be using for the subjects in your study.  If you are proposing a case control study, Cross sectional studies, Cohort studies how are you defining cases and controls?
4.    Description of sampling method.  Will you be using simple random sampling or another method?  Provide a brief rationale.
5.    Description of data sources or data collection methods.  Are you proposing to use data that has already been collected or are you proposing to collect new data?  What time period are you proposing to examine? Describe the data sources and/or survey methods that you will be using.
6.    Description of independent and dependent variables.  Include a table which contains the variable and the variable type (e.g. dichotomous, ordinal, categorical, continuous).  Describe how the variable will be operationalized (i.e how it will be defined or measured in your proposed study).
7.    Description of analytic methods  Describe what statistical method will be used to analyze the results for your two variables.  Discuss your rationale.
1.    Discuss limitations of the proposed study

Aschengrau A, Seage GR (2003). Chapter 6: Overview of Epidemiologic Study Designs.  Essentials of Epidemiology in Public Health, Boston: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.  Retrieved May 26, 2012 at:
Carr D, French ME (2004).  Program Evaluation: Measuring the Value of Active Aging,  Partnership for Prevention.  Retrieved  May 26, 2012 from
Fourney A (2011).  Impact Evaluation Handbook.  A Guide for Network for a Healthy California
Local Incentive Awardees.  California Department of Health.  Retrieved  May 26, 2012 from
Guerra-López, I.. (2007). THE IMPACT EVALUATION PROCESS, PART 1: BUILDING A CASE FOR DEMONSTRATING THE WORTH OF PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT INTERVENTIONS. Performance Improvement, 46(7), 33-38.  Retrieved May 26, 2012, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1613323381).
PANDA Basics of Statistical Analysis.  Tulane University.  Retrieved  May 26, 2012 from
Russell, J.. (2009). EVALUATING IMPACT: EVALUATION AND CONTINUAL IMPROVEMENT FOR PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT PRACTITIONERS.  Performance Improvement, 48(7), 42-45.  Retrieved May 26, 2012, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1893304371).
Additional Readings (Optional):
Principles of epidemiology in public health practice (2009). US Department of Health and Human Services Retrieved Retrieved February 22, 2012 from:
Dannenberg, A.L., Bhatia, R., Cole, B.L., Dora, C., Fielding, J.E., Kraft, K., et al. (2006, Feb).  Growing the Field of Health Impact Assessment in the United States: An Agenda for Research and Practice.  American Journal of Public Health,  96(2), 262-270.  Retrieved May 26, 2012 from Proquest.
Farris, R.P., Will, J.C., Khavjou, O., & Finkelstein, E.A. (2007, Apr.). Beyond Effectiveness: Evaluating the Public Health Impact of the WISEWOMAN Program. American Journal of Public Health, 97(4), 641-647.  Retrieved  May 26, 2012 from Proquest.
Garcia, A., Levi, J., & Finkelstein, R.. (2009). Evaluating Community-based Prevention Programs. Journal of Urban Health, 86(5), 668-71.  Retrieved May 26, 2012 from ProQuest Medical Library. (Document ID: 1891767941).
Gertler PJ, Martinez S, Premand P et al (2011).  Impact Evaluation in Practice.  The World Bank.  Library of Congress, Washington DC.  Retrieved May 26, 2012, from
How to Analyze Your Data.  Handbook – Statistics and Data Management.  AO Publishing, 2009.  Retrieved  May 26, 2012 from
Intuitive Biostatistics: Choosing a statistical test.  Retrieved  May 26, 2012 from
Social Research Methods.  Retrieved  May 26, 2012 from
Sherril B. Gelmon, Anna Foucek and Amy Waterbury. Program Evaluation: Principles and Practices. 2nd ed. Portland: Northwest Health Foundation, 2005.  Retrieved  May 26, 2012 from

This is the paper that I wrote but was not accepted – see the comments below from the teacher{it needs modifications.

how are you planning to randomly select your population who are infected vs those you are not infected. I believe randomization is not appropriate in this cross sectional study.

you need to walk the reader with step by step instruction on where you are getting your samples from (various agencies is not specific). the reader should read your proposal and be able to conduct the study without asking any questions.
you need to include demographic data and a standard questionnaire you will be using for data collection. you also need to include those and any other confounding variables in the questionnaire and the table. data analysis/statistical alaysis are the same and should reflect all variables included in the table.}
1.Study Design
The data for the research will be gathered from serological tests for both HIV and Hepatitis B. All those who will participate in the study will undergo both tests. The initial test for HIV will be done using the ELISA method, and a second with the use of the Western Blot procedure. Tests for Hepatitis B will be done using HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc (antibody to hepatitis B core antigen).
Cross-Sectional Study
Studying the prevalence of coinfection by Hepatitis B infection in HIV infected patients ,cross-sectional study will be used because it gives a snapshot of the current scenario . It is an inexpensive method and can be conducted easily (Barros, & Hirakata, 2003). These random samples with defined reasons will help study indications and trends which (if in case) have been observed earlier (Thomas, 2003).
2.Study Population
The participants for the study will be divided into two groups: one of the groups is of those who are diagnosed with HIV,  and the other group is of those who are not infected with HIV are randomly selected . The population for the study are  adult males and females who will be willing to take the tests. The participants are residents of the United States of America.

Ethical approval
Given the fact that this study is sensitive, the requirement for informed consent and ethical approval will be  observed. For the subjects under 18, parental consent is required and each participant will be  informed of the results of the HIV and Hepatitis B test.
3. Description of Sampling Method
For this study, random sampling will be the main approach. Random sampling is extremely essential in obtaining the right mix of pa participation ts in the survey. Additionally, random sampling helps in averting any form of bias (Schreuder, Gregoire,  & Wood, 1993). ) A total of 800 individuals will be sampled and completed the questionnaire. Out of the selected sample, half were men and women who were diagnosed with HIV and the other half (the control) comprised of individuals who were not infected with HIV. This means that 200 women and 200 men were infected with HIV, while the other 200 men and 200 women were HIV-negative.
4.Data Collection/Sources
For this study, new data will be obtained. The data will be obtained from the health care facilities in different parts of the country will be tested. The health care service providers recruited to test the participants will be required to record the findings of the HBV tests from both the study group and the control group. There will be a questionnaire that will be filled by the practitioners recruited to collect data. The time frame for the collection of the data is one month.
For the research question, is there a significant increase in the rate of Hepatitis B infection among people diagnosed with HIV in the US, compared to the US-reported rate for the general population, the dependent variable will be the rate of Hepatitis B infection, while the independent variable will be HIV infection. The control variable in the study is the general population (the HIV-negative).
Description of Independent and Dependent Variables
The table gives an idea about types and nature of variables involved in the research and their operational definition.
Variable    Description    Type of Data    Operational Definition
Independent    Presence of HIV    Nominal (measured on the scale of Yes/No)    As declared in medical reports and information obtained through informal sources
Dependant    Rate of increase in Hepatitis B    Nominal (measured on the scale of Yes/No)    As declared in medical reports and information obtained through informal sources

6.Data Analysis
Data collection from this research is quantitative in terms of numbers of those who are infected with either of the two infections, or both (coinfection). A comparison will be performed to establish whether there is a significant increase in the rate of Hepatitis B infection among people who are diagnosed with HIV in the United States, compared to the United States reported rate for the general population.

Statistical analysis
The Epi-info version 2000 (CDC,USA) software will be used for analysing data .The collected data will be keyed into the program, and descriptive analyses will be performed.  In order to measure  the strength of association between variables  the Chi Square test will be run. A cross tabulation will be used to describe the relationship between variables, along with a contingency table. The analyzed data will be finally presented in statistical and tabular format where possible. The data is also used in making recommendations at the end of the report.
This is a major study carried out in different states in the US.  Travelling to all the states where data is to be collected data is one of the limitations; others are limitations in resources in terms of time, finances and human resource. The distance and time available for the study is also a major limitation. Another limitation is  the sensitivity of the study. Revealing information on personal health is not easy for many people. Thus, getting adequate people to participate for the study is a difficult task.
A major problem for the study is identifying whether those infected with HBV were infected before or after they got infected with HIV. There was no possible way of telling which of the two infections came earlier among those found to be coinfected. There are various other variables that might play a role in the increase in the rate of Hepatitis B infection, and not only HIV. The study was not controlled for these other variables. Thus, the identification of a relationship between the two variables may be misleading. It would be important to control for other risk factors in the transmission and infection with HBV.

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