Question 1: What is Institutional Racism?
Institution racism refers to education economic, social and political set ups forces and policies that are intentional or unintentional acts, based on race, skin color, or cultures targeting discrimination and subordination of an person or an entity. Institution racism occurs in organizations where resources distribution, power and opportunities are for the benefit of a particular group of people or category based on cultures, skin color or race. This type of racism has hierarchical structures where it is enacted through policies and frameworks by individuals and institutions keep them in force (Andersen & Collins, 2009). The origin of racism in United States can be traced back in the era of slavery, settlement, and American Indians schools segregations. This racism distinguish its self from other racism in that policies and practices within organizations are utilized to disadvantage selected race, ethnic groups or less privileged individuals. It is believed that institution racism can only exist to institution where power to control and enforce policies and practices are manifested to a single category of people. For example, whites given power and authority to enforce and enact policies and practices segregating other races or skin colors.
- Define fully political Racism
Racism accounts all discrimination and prejudice practices to an individual based on the race or the skin color. Political racism is discussed by various scholars and policy makers as the attempt to discriminate individuals due to intergroup attitudes, political ideologies and politics issues. Like institutional racism, this type is more of political ideology in the field of social policies and democracy. Politics racism usually occur when an individual or a group of performs are discriminated politically due to color, race, cultures or racial ideologies. Political racism exists in conservative politics that are associated to policies opposing affirmative actions and conservative values and attitudes. For example, in United States, blacks voted for Obama given that he is black. In the same way, political racism is practiced when individuals are affiliated to a political party based on the race or the skin color leaders (Wise, 2005).
- Define Economic Racism
According to business dictionary economic discrimination can be described as the application of labor markets discrimination, paying workers differently based on the race, color skin, or culture groups. In this regard, in the labor market or economic set up, individuals are treated unfairly, biased, and denied equally opportunities as regards to recruitment, selection, promotion or even transfers in the organization. Discrimination is this category is practiced on the grounds of sex/gender, religion, culture, and race or on political support and belief. For example, in countries such as America and Germany blacks and minority communities have discriminated years on economic grounds. It is commonly argued that most developed countries single most damaging factor is the prolonged effects within black and minority groups due to economic racism. Concisely, economic racism refers to discrimination and isolation of individuals of particular culture, race, color skin, or language on economic factors (Andersen & Collins, 2009).
- Define Housing racism
This is discrimination that exists in the sale, purchase or renting of houses where qualified individuals are isolated or denied opportunity to ownership because of sex, religion, ethnic background or race and skin color.
- Define legal racism
Legal racism refers to prejudice practices most prevalent in the legal systems particularly courts to give judgment based on race, or the skin color of the accused. In addition, legal policies and enforcements are formulated and applied in institutions or economic set-ups intentional or unintentional to discriminate particular group or section of individuals towards action or legal procedures (Wise, 2005).
- Define educational racism
Education racism is a developed set of attitudes and behaviors that include superiority of one group and inferiority of another group in the education systems. Usually education system plays a crucial role in combating and eradicating the vice of racism. For example in many instances of educational racism, children have the believe that certain group of people are better than others or certain race, skin or ethnic are superior than others. Education racism is much connected to apartheid systems where certain races or skin colors are supposed to join certain schools and other minority or school join a different school.
- Define cultural racism
Today, globalised institutions and economies have developed a globalized culture. Cultural racism is one of various terms business and economic experts have coined to refer to racial ideology and practices that emerged due to globalization. Other forms of racisms have much been buried and new racism replaced them. Culture racism is actually discrimination or isolation to opportunity or resources based on the cultural background of an individual. In this respect, individuals are denied opportunities through affirmative actions and other resources in the globalised world due to the cultures of origin (Wise, 2005).
- Define medical racism
Medical racism is a medical malpractice prevalent in the health institution and community based health care. In this racism concept, health experts fail to adhere to the principle of equality or health care to all and discriminate attendance based on race, skin color or the ethnicity (Washington, 2008). Also, the vice exist where scientist exploit others based on color or race
Question 2: what is the difference between prejudice and racism? Explain the anatomy of racism.
Prejudice is a negative reflection of assimilated power, which segregates individuals instead of connecting them. It consists of general preconceptions regarding a scenario a thing or an individual and often results due to racism. It is often taken to be pathological and originate from authoritarian personality, which often discriminate minority groups or the socially disadvantaged ones. Prejudice manifest as a part of social interactions, which enables individuals to become aware of the existence of their fellows in the society and most importantly aid in societal intermingling. Prejudice is a disintegrative power, which is attained via hatred, terror, and intimidation of an ordinary rival. The negative identity of a give group of people results to violence due to negative stereotyping, which results on its discrimination, based on the negative stereotypes. Prejudice has been explained as having categorical thoughts, which is often viewed as a normal trait due to normal prejudgments as a result of unavoidable orderly manner of thinking (Andersen & Collins, 2009).
Other studies reveal that prejudiced results from a favorite of a group in which a person belongs rather than on negative attitudes towards others. It may arise due to adoring, sympathizing and trusting one’s group. Prejudice results as one finds unusual or weird traits in other groups. Racism is an example of prejudice and may also result as a result of gender, ethnicity, socio-economic situations, and sexual orientation or due to religious affiliation. Prejudice due to racism is apparent in the society. Racism is a set of beliefs which ascertains the existence of race and those racial traits causes superiority of inferiority of particular races. When individual are separated according to their race they are treated differently due to their genetic composition. Physical traits and cultural traits make one to identify or group others according to race where some people may fail to fit in the group they are designated, which creates an illusion of what a race is.
Racism can also be defined as a doctrine which infers that an individual is born with moral and social characteristics in relation to race. The history of man has been dominated by racism which has marginalized individuals according to skin color, their cultural values, nationality, and language among other features. Racism is the basis by which there has been establishment of war and violence, slavery, nation’s formations as well as formation of legal codes. The issue of slavery is the most known reflection of racism, which oppressed the black and considered them as less human and therefore worth to be properties to labor for the superior race as the whites. Racial prejudice is infectious and has been termed as a global problem. Its diagnosis is achieved through evaluations of certain manifestations such as terror, intolerance, division, isolation, bias and hatred. The manifestations clearly results from ignorance.
Racism on the other hand can be perceived as a doctrine in which inborn biological differences exist for human race. It dictates cultural or sole attainments with the notion that individual race is superior and should lead other races. Racism has also been taken to mean exulting the race in which one belongs while discriminating other races in which one stereotypes, prefers, fear or as a result of nationalism. Racism has been applied to explain social discrimination, racial prejudice, marginalization and certain occurrence of violence. A racist is an individual who upholds racism. Racism may historically have been enhanced as the Portuguese explored the African continent and developed their own cities while taking the natives to be their rivals. Africans could not cope with their level of technology and were subdued by the western civilizations enslaving them and considering them as being from different savages. Slave trade enhanced as blacks sold their fellows depicting savagery. This facilitated attitudes towards slavery considering blacks as subhuman thus inferior.
A group of persons with distinguishable biological traits is called a race. All humans are Homo sapiens but have been distinct due to hair and skin color or texture, the color or shape of the eyes, limbs and organ size as well as the facial shape and appearances. However, it has been scientifically proven that the differences are only physical asserting that Homo sapiens have similar traits than are the differences. However, people have continuously perceived others with respect to their superficial traits. Humans physically differ only in their appearance. However if the pathology manifestations are evident, the result is usually demeaning. The anatomical or taxonomical differences have continued to make life diverse and therefore interesting. Besides, they award people with unique features, which can be blended with those of another to come up with even more interesting being. However, the unique traits have been perverted through racial prejudice, which segregate people into groups considering them inferior while themselves as superior. These preconceived suspicions towards a race consider some as inherently superior i.e. their physical, intellectual and cultural aspects while others as inferior and should be rightly been dominated. As a result, tension, conflict and violence arise due to denial of civil rights and privilege to engage politically economically and socially. Today racial profiling is common in the U.S as well as aspects of affirmative action, discrimination and inequality which have risen with the globalization process as foreign labor is imported and exported and limitations through immigration policies (Wise, 2005). Racism is not only discriminative but also exploiting manifested through various institutions. It is accustomed by economic imperatives and conferred by cultural, religious, literal, artistic, scientific and media aspects.
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