Critically discuss Costa and McCrae's 5 factor model of personality











According to Eysenck ( 1991)“Where we have hundred of inventories incorporating thousands of traits largely overlapping but also containing specific variance, each empirical finding is strictly speaking only relevant to a specific trait. This is not the way to build an unscientific discipline.” (P.786). Different explanations are provided in explaining the differences in terms of personality How people feel, Psychologists gather vast amount of information to observe people particularly paying extra attention towards behaviour patterns. This provides them an idea to predict why an individual behaves in various other ways.

Further, in my essay I will critically discuss the five-factor model, adapted by (Costa and McCrae, 1992) the five-factor model is a trait theory of personality empathizing on five particular personalities within a person, including Openness. Neuroticism Extraversion Agreeableness and Conscientiousness all these usually referred to as the big five (P53) personality and individual differences. The first trait commonly known as Neuroticism explains the tendency within experiencing negative emotions leading to anxiety disorder, anger and depression. In addition, self-consciousness is another characteristic associated with Neuroticism.

The second trait within the personality model is Extraversion. These are positive emotions, however high extraversions have tendency to be assertive and low extraversion are those who may perhaps be quiet. The primary facets of Extraversion are exciting, warmth positive emotions and alert. The idea openness has derived from Coan (1974). Openness is to experience new ideas and engage in activities with sensations. The primary facets within Extraversion, compromises of feelings and values that associate imagination with deep thoughts and opinions (Page55) personality and individual differences.

The fourth factor refers to Agreeableness in which individuals normally best described as warm, tolerant, modest friendly having a tendency of tender mindedness. The final factor consists of responsibly with self-discipline Conscincetiouness. This factor has primary facets dutifulness self discipline organisational striving for achievement and determination of individual differences (Page 57). However, Eysenck points out, that personality involves self-regulation and avoiding a specific stimulus.

A neuropsychological aspect of need to balance sensitiveness underpins the cause of personality. According to (Jackson and Smillie, 2004) “These biotical theories of personality have been used to develop such constructs as appetitive motivation” (page 217) personality and personality and individual differences purple book. According to Eysenck 1916-97) Normal personality normally understood in two dimensions, innovation and extraversion. These combine into specific forms in stability-instability in the mind and science. Eysenck personality model is the three dimensional model which is similar to the big five factor model of personality, however the model is compatible and breaks down to low aggression and high level of openness.

The gigantic model emphasises the high and low scores in each trait. Neuroticism, which refers to a person’s level of emotionality and a tendency to worry, is touchy and moody. Individuals who have high level of Neuroticism show these stressed traits in personality.  Extraversion shows high level of dominance within the personality talkative, confident, express feelings easily optimistic and sociable. Low Extroverts show low levels of social contacts, tend to be reserved and tend to be quiet. Eysenck’s Personality model, in contrast to the five-factor model includes psychosis, that describes a level of being cruel and risk taking `to those who are socially driven and are most likely to adopt this traits, as this clearly showed the difference in the five-factor mode of personality.

The big five-factor model has shown to be a good reliability and validity for researches to all agree on its existence within the five- factor personality. Having advantages through assessing these dimensions through personality stripe book the five-factor model usually correlated with overall level of job satisfaction experienced by employees (Costa & McCrae 1985, 1982, page 60). In general, satisfied employees are more likely to remain in a position and to avoid absences than are dissatisfied employees.
Initial research indicated that neuroticism as a factor associated with the negative correlation with job satisfaction, whereas conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness are positively correlated with job satisfaction. Openness to experience has a negligible impact on job satisfaction. Additional research, however, has only been able to replicate correlations among the factors of neuroticism and extraversion, with extraversion linked to a positive correlation with job satisfaction and neuroticism normally negatively correlated. This could be due to the social nature of the workplace (Judge, Heller, & Mount, 2002). If the workplace is a social environment, then extraverted employees are more likely to be at a low level of arousal while at work, whereas at their home there is less stimulation.

Introverts, on the other hand, are more likely at their optimal level of arousal outside of the workplace, where there is less stimulation, and therefore are more likely dissatisfied with the level of stimulation that they experience while at work). In a study which was carried out according to Ahmetoglu Swami and Chamorro-Premuzic (2010) took out a study (page 78) to examine the link between love and personality time and length, this method was used  by using Robert Sternberg’s theory of love. Which highlighted three dimensions of intimacy alone, passion alone, and infatuation alone. Several hypotheses were formulated and the conscientious would show being positive relationship with intimacy and commitment.

The authors predicted all three-love relationships might be positive related with the length. “In all 16 030 participants took part in this study, ranging from under 20 to over 70 (m =31-40) years. 61 were women (n=9827) and 39% men (n=6203). Measures adapted love scale: a nine-item scale assessing the three dimensions of love, namely intimacy, commitment and passion.
The big short inventory relationship was assed via a single item with the following options: 1 =NOT APPLICABLE 2=LESS than one month; 3= 1-6 months ; 4-9 years 7=10 years or over 8 to 20 years or over; 9=30 years over.

The results showed positives in all three dimensions. As agreeable people were most probably to engage with others and were at an advantage of a romantic relationship, Conscientiousness, found to be positively associated with commitment and intimacy, and extraverts found to act more with passion and even more likely compared to introverts. These findings are only a portion within the personality model used by (Chamorror-Premuic, 2010) is just an example in contrast with the big five personality factor (Page 78).

The paper has given an account and a critical discussion on the different types of personality and the five-factor model. The aim of this paper is to elaborate on the five-factor model and its findings, the paper used the results and the findings from previous research carried out, to indeed prove that the five-factor model is coherent.

In conclusion, for a smooth and rational social relationship between individuals to exist, then the five-factor model of personality needs recognition. Personality of individual’s, be it at the workplace or in their normal daily interactions normally proven to vary, but with a critical analysis of the five-factor model, then a healthy relationship can prevail since these models are self-regulating.

Lastly, the five-factor model, describes persons wholly. However, these factors do not solely attributed to forecasting and elaborating actual characteristics and behaviours of individuals since they are very broad and inclusive. Research has proved that, in forecasting real and actual behaviour then multiple side traits are paramount, since they are actually more effective and conceptual.

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