Information systems and software applications are quickly mounting in size and complexity and are fundamental in helping individuals and organizations attain their goals. Generally, system software is a compilation of programs that interrelates between hardware and software applications which can be proprietary or off the shelf to enable individuals in organizations solve problems and execute specific tasks. System software incorporates the operating system, utility programs, and middleware. An Information system incorporates computer-based components and manual components that collects, stores, and manages data for information output to users. Through Information systems, an organization can potentially identify and address various scopes of problems and opportunities in its field of influence. Today, organizations have developed proprietary application software that provides a competitive advantage in the compelling business world. Since a system entails organization, integration, and central objectives, we are therefore going to focus on some information systems and software applications available in various organizational departments within a company.
I. Accounts Department
Accounting Information System (AIS)
The AIS is a system that collects, processes, and distributes accounting information to interested parties. This may range from evidential documents showing transactions, events, records, work sheets, trial balances and other financial statements which may either be manual or computerized. The AIS helps in compiling accounting information that is reported to managers for use in general operations and other non-routine decision making (Hall, 2008). This information can also be reported to external parties such as creditors, stockholders, and various government agencies.
II. Finance Department
Management Information Systems (MIS)
MIS system helps in the collection, collation, and processing of financial elements of data association with the organization and intimately works with the accounts department. Financial information in assorted forms usually matters to a variety of people, both inside and outside the organization. The MIS is a powerful multi-user application software used in business management and mainly integrates record and file locking for financial data integrity. An financial MIS provides comprehensive information on accounts receivable, accounts payable, payroll, and other numerous applications. Financial transactions, processing, and enterprise resource planning system significantly captures organization’s financial data that is also used by other functional information systems. The financial information can be used as a forecasting tool (Bidgoli, 2010).
III. Marketing Department
Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Systems
The CRM system helps in marketing, sales, and maintains a cordial customer service aspect of doing business. The CRM software provides a service scheduler mechanism for various activities and schedules them by resource, time, or service. The software also contains a marketing automation module that helps in assembling customers or guide lists, creates and tracks marketing campaign progress (Wisner, Tan & Leong, 2008). Its campaign wizard assists in the distribution of ‘’e-mail blasts’’ to targeted lists, and automatically tracks responses. Some CRM applications allows users to effortlessly customize views and business logics with the intention of automating repetitive tasks, and transfer data to other functional applications for analysis.
By exemplifying some of the use of information systems and software applications in organizational departments, the performance are apprised to ascertain its usefulness in an organizational context. The applications and systems are functionally flexible in some circumstances no matter how and where they are used in various business organizations. The use of these applications and systems improves on speed, reliability, and radical change in general at the operational, tactical, or strategic level in the company or anywhere else in the organizational departments.
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