In the past 150 years, resources from the environment were in plenty to sustain the population present then. This led to minor or no intentions to preserve the environment. Demand for production was not high by this time since the environment seemed insusceptible to degradation. Environmentalist Barry Commoner argued that most of the available resources can not be irretrievably lost and so increased input will earn some increased outputs.
For the last 100 years, human population has drastically changed to an increased population. Within this period of time, development has been so fast in ecosystems dynamics, science and other phenomenon. Due to the increased population, consumption of natural resources has been made to increase. Production has then been required to provide for human needs thus living and non-living natural resources have been converted to these products (Ghosh, 2008).
The growing population has owed to the disruption of the wildlife to date. It is by mismanagement that resources have been scarce for human use thus turning to the environment for resources. Though scarce resources can be replaced by substitutes, efforts on environmental conservations should be conducted to maintain the preferred ecosystem. The economic development of the human population such as cultivation has led to loss of soil fertility as soil has been made prone to erosion. Hunting and gathering which has been practiced as leisure and as an economic activity has enacted great impact to wild animals. They have led to a decrease in population of wildlife.
Human population in the present has disrupted vegetation thus affecting plant life. This has been done through improper land use such as use of fires to clear vegetation thus disrupting the ecosystem (Goudie, 2006). In the present situation individuals have denied environmental conservation by pollution on the environment and depletion of resources for industrialization. Conservation to the environment has been denied and poor management has led to a disrupted ecosystem.
Maintaining biological diversity
There are many reasons for maintaining biological diversity, thus there is a need to conservatism, since each specie has an important role no matter how small it is. The earth’s biodiversity is important in life in that it provides the basic necessities to man such as food, medicine, wood for making shelter, fiber for making clothing and other industrial products (Miller & Spoolman, 2008).
Biodiversity is simply the variety of life and its processes. Logging itself will cause loss of habitats to species for example logging in the Northwest which has led to endangering of the owl. Loss of specie’s habitat will lead to its extinction. Loss of the specie will therefore result to loss of population of other species since there is interdependency of species in an eco system. It is important to maintain biodiversity and save endangered specie so as to maintain their presence in the future. Timber companies claim that efficient wood collectors fund new investments and have created stable labor demands to the population. Forest managers have argued that logging is a solution to crowded and fire prone forests thus incur the importance of logging. Though the timber industry restriction will led to laying off of workers, it is important to maintain a balanced eco system and conservation of the forests should begin by curbing logging.
An initiative of replacing the cut down trees should be started and the cut one plant two trees policy enacted to timber companies. Other alternatives to replace timber products should be started for example use of other sources of fuel rather than wood. Non native trees should be cultivated for supplying the timber companies rather than logging the native species which habitats most species such as birds. Paper recycling factories should be initiated to process and recycle used paper. This will create employment opportunities for workers since labor work force will be required. The recycling will reduce demand for paper pulp thus reduced logging. As opposed to timber companies, the well being of one bird is crucial for its depletion will lead to an imbalanced ecosystem. Its extinction will also disrupt other species since species are interdependent in an ecosystem. It is therefore an important measure in maintaining biological diversity.
Environmental threats affecting the national parks
National parks are practically reserves set aside for animal and environmental protection and are prohibited from most development so as to nurture their habitats. Though the environment is protected it poses threat to the national parks. The protection of animals (wildlife) in the parks experience great threats which depress the sustainability of the wildlife in these parks. The major threats facing the national parks are environmental. These threats include climate change which causes great loss to wildlife species. This is as a result of changes in the climate such as change in average rainfall thus disrupting wild life. Natural disasters such as volcanoes, earthquakes, forest fires, floods and lightning cause a great threat to wildlife. These disasters have played a role in habitat loss of wildlife thus fewer natural wildlife habitats are reserved on occurrence of these calamities (Hunter, 1999).
Pesticides and chemicals which have been used on the environment to kill unwanted species incur environmental pollution to the parks. These chemicals do not only confer toxic effects to the favorable species but also harm the plants and wildlife. Introduction of non native species in the parks also pose a great threat to wildlife since they degrade the native species. Weeds also affect wildlife by replacing native vegetation therefore eliminating native plant species from the environment. This creates feeding options to animals since some of the weed species are toxic to animals. Intruders in the parks such as poachers, loggers, and miners enter parks illegally threatening wildlife in the parks (Miller & Spoolman, 2008) Machinery in the parks such as off road vehicles have led to the destruction of vegetation and disturbed wildlife in the parks. These machinery, have been used by tourist who explore or visit the parks. Human activities such as logging, mining, oil drilling, livestock grazing have disturbed wild life in many parks.
National parks in the USA can be used more sustainably by prevention of certain threats which endanger parks. The park services should employ enough personnel to fight invasions by intruders such as poachers and loggers. The personnel should also aid in controlling and guiding tourists who visit parks in the USA. Machinery usage such as use of snow mobiles in the parks should be avoided or else minimized so as to sustain vegetation. Urban development around parks should be avoided as this will lead to degradation of the park. Human activities around or in the park should not be allowed since it causes pollution to the wildlife in the park. With consideration of these factors parks in USA can sustainably be used.
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